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哺乳類動物
貓、狗、兔子、倉鼠、蜜袋鼯、刺蝟、貂、穿山甲、果子狸等寵物的、動物園的、野生的..所有四隻腳的都在這裡談;人類除外...

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舊 2015-05-23, 07:06 PM   #1
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預設 貓皰疹病毒(FHV-1) 筆記

FHV-1(Feline Herpesvirus type 1)
Subfamily 為 Alphaherpesvirinae(α-Groups)(alpha, not a)

pathogenesis

1.潛伏感染部位(latency site)在神經節(Ganglia),如人類皰疹病毒 HSV-1 在三叉神經節(trigeminal ganglia)、HSV-2 在骶神經節(sacral ganglia)。FHV-1 主要潛伏在三叉神經節。病毒DNA(皰疹病毒核酸形式為DNA)在宿主細胞的細胞核內插入細胞DNA成為前病毒潛伏。在宿主面臨生理或情緒壓力時開始複製(從細胞核膜上出芽,並進入胞吐小囊中),病毒通過神經軸突轉移到皮膚引起炎症。

2.遵循傳統遺傳中心法則,DNA->RNA,RNA->蛋白質

3.有套膜(Enveloped)。

4.在生物分類上,為水痘疱疹病毒属(Varicellovirus),和人類皰疹病毒3型(HHV-3;即俗稱的帶狀皰疹)同屬。

過程:
1. Cell Entry
To gain entry the virus binds to receptors on the surface of the cell. Enveloped viruses loose their viral envelope and cell membrane prior to entry into the host cell. The host cell receptors that facilitate this viral entry have a role in species specificity and cell tropism. This host-virus interaction is a potential site for therapeutic intervention.

2. Viral transcription
Viruses use host cell enzymes and nucleic acid for transcription. Accordingly, this is a site for therapeutic intervention. Therapeutic intervention at the host cell-virus interaction results in host toxicity, which is often a complication of anti-viral therapy.

3. Virus mediated cell destruction When a virus enters a cell there are several possible outcomes. Cell lysis occurs with release of viral particles, this is responsible for the pathogenesis of most alpha viruses like FHV-1. Viral replication may also occur at a slow rate with no release of virus particles but there is antigenic stimulation of the host immune response with subsequent clinical signs e.g. stroma keratitis. The third outcome is the virus being sequestered in the cell with no replication –
latency

表現:

VIRAL FEATURES
FHV-1 is a member of the Herpesviridae family; subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. Like other alpha herpes viruses FHV-1 is species specific to domestic and wild cats, has a short reproductive cycle, results in cell lysis and establishes latency in the trigeminal ganglia.

Approximately 75-95% of cats are seropositive for FHV-1 and FHV-1 is responsible for up to 45% of all upper respiratory infections. FHV-1 is labile in the environment lasting up to 18 hours. It is susceptible to desiccation, disinfectants, proparacaine and fluorescein, which should be a consideration when collecting cornea/conjunctiva swabs for FHV-1 PCR.

LATENCY
During active replication in epithelial cells, the virus particles ascend along sensory neurons to establish life long latency in the ganglia. In 80% of cats latency is established in the trigeminal ganglia as the trigeminal nerve is sensory to the ocular, nasal and facial epithelium. During this period virus cannot be cultured and cats have no clinical disease. Numerous stressful stimuli reactive FHV-1, either physiological (gestation, re-housing etc.) or pharmacological (corticosteroid etc.). The activated virus descends along the sensory neurons to the ocular, nasal and facial epithelium, which results in the ocular/ peri-ocular clinical signs we see with FHV-1. Viraemia has less of a role in re-activated viral diseases and detection of FHV-1 DNA in the serum of clinically affected cats is not a consistent finding. Although, it is possible that viraemia may have a role in the initial primary disease and FHV-1 DNA has been detected in the blood of experimentally infected cats less than 2 weeks after inoculation.

PERSISTANT VIRAL STATE
The persistent viral state is a state that is distinct from acute (lytic) state, latent without disease and reactivated lytic/ immunopathological state. Although virus cannot be cultured during this latent period, FHV-1 gene “latency associated transcript” can be detected. This FHV-1 LAT is thought to have a role in chronic immunolopathological disease e.g. stromal keratitis, chronic conjunctivitis and herpetic dermatitis.

VIRAL SHEDDING
Incubation period has been shown to vary from 2-10 days with viral shedding as early as 24 hours after inoculation persisting up to 21 days.
(引自DE-MYSTIFYING FELINE HERPES VIRUS -1(Dr. Patricia Mundy))

(待續...)
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舊 2015-05-24, 09:55 AM   #2
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野人 是一個將要出名的人 野人 是一個將要出名的人
預設

以下內容涉及醫療行為。

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舊 2015-05-24, 10:56 AM   #3
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註冊日期: 2004-05-16
文章: 9,991
野人 是一個將要出名的人 野人 是一個將要出名的人
預設

以下內容涉及醫療行為。

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舊 2015-05-30, 11:25 AM   #4
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文章: 9,991
野人 是一個將要出名的人 野人 是一個將要出名的人
預設

鼻塞 - 較稀的清涕 或 鼻蓄膿

建議使用電動吸鼻器,看情況協助貓咪將鼻腔中的鼻涕吸出,效果不錯。有些例子是改善鼻塞狀況後,貓就會主動進食了。

吸鼻器要確定有作動: 請先用容器裝水測試看看。我使用的品牌是三樂事電動吸鼻器,作動時會有噠噠的震動聲(注意只有嗡嗡馬達聲但不作動的情況),強度調到一段(最低)即可。
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